Journal of The Korean Society of Physical Medicine

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Table. 4.

Table. 4.

Main Characteristics of the Studies

Authors Characteristics of subjects Performance of Dual Tasks walking Gait analysis tools Component of gait domain Cognitive function tested (test used) Main findings

Used tasks Results
Auvinet B. et al.[41] MCI (n=19), age; 76.3±7.2, 12M&7F, MMSE 26±2 1. 30m walking with counting backward by 1 starting from 50 at usual pace Walking speed 1.0±.3m/s,
Stride frequency .92±.07Hz,
Stride regularity 258±54
TUG straight 30m corridor, Locometrix Gait speed (m/s),
Stride frequency (Hz), Stride regularity
Global cognition (MMSE) Correlated Dual task (walking with counting backward); ↑memory impairment, ↓gait speed, ↓stride frequency, ↓stride regularity.

Coppin, A. K. et al.[44] Older adults (n=737), age; 72.7±5.9, 343M&394F, MMSE 27.2±1.8 1. Talking while walking (usual pace 7m)
2. Walking with picking-up object (usual pace 7m)
3. Walking with Carrying a large package (usual pace 7m)
4. Walking with obstacles (fast pace 7m)
5. Walking with a weighted vest (fast pace 60m)
ΔTMT
Usual pace;
Talking while walking: high .91, intermediate .96, low .97,
Walking with picking-up object
: high .91, intermediate .97, low 1.00,
Walking with carrying a large package
: high 1.17, intermediate 1.20, low 1.18
Fast pace;
Walking with obstacles
: high 1.13, intermediate 1.20, low 1.25,
Walking with a weighted vest
: high 1.20, intermediate 1.24, low 1.26
7m walk test
60m walk test (m/s)
Gait speed (m/s) Global cognition (MMSE),
Executive function (TMT)
Correlated
Dual task (pick up an object, walking over obstacles, carrying a weighted vest);
↑Executive function,↑gait speed
Usual pace 7m;
Talking while walking (p=.764), Walking with picking-up object (p=.092), Walking with carrying a large package (p=.003)
Fast pace 7m;
Walking with obstacles (p=.000)
Fast pace 60m;
Walking with a weight vest (p=.319)
No correlated
dual task (talking while walking, carrying a large package) : Between executive function and gait speed

Doi, T. et al.[33] a-MCI (n=191),
na- MCI (n=198)
age; 71.6±4.9, 48%M&52%F, SDST 38.9±7.4, TMT-B 43.5±16.7, DS-backward 5.1±1.6, RAVLT 7.3±3.4, Visual reproduction 21.9±8.8, MMSE 26.7±1.9
1. Walking while Counting backward from 100 Gait speed 1.23±.32m/s Horizontal walkway (11m) Gait speed (m/s) Global cognition (MMSE),
Processing speed (SDST),
Executive function (TMT-B),
Memory (DS-backward, RAVLT, Visual reproduction)
Correlated
Dual task (walking while counting backward);
↓Gait speed, ↓cognitive functions, ↓working memory, in all MCI participants.
Between Processing speed, executive function with gait speed.
DTW with cognitive functions in all MCI;
SDST (r=.395), TMT-B (r=-.373), Digit span (r=.307), RAVLT (r=.238), Visual reproduction (r=.325).

Gillain, S. et al.[39] AD (n=6), age; 73.66, 3M&3F, MMSE 22.83±2.14, Mattis scale 22.83±2.14, Rey’s complex figure test 23.66±6.82, Grober and Buschke 16-item free, recall/cued recall test
MCI (n=14), age; 72.85, 7M&7F, MMSE 26.71±1.68, Mattis scale 26.71±1.68, Rey’s complex figure test .60±3.93, Grober and Buschke 16-item free, recall/cued recall test
1. Walking while counting backwards by 1’s starting from 50 AD
↓Gait speed, Stride length (When comparing TS-TD, Speed -.28±.27 / Stride length -.13±.22)
MCI
↓Gait speed, Stride length (When comparing TS-TD, speed –.17±.16 / Stride length -.06±.06)
TUG, Locometrix Gait speed (m/s),
Stride length (m)
Global cognition (MMSE, Mattis scale),
Attention/
Memory/
Language (Grober and Buschke 16-item free, Recall/cued recall test),
Visuospatial skill (Rey’s complex figure test)
Correlated
Dual task (walking while countng backward);
↑global cognitive level, ↑gait speed, ↑stride frequency in MCI.
MMSE;
Speed (r=.55), Stride length (r=.65)
Mattis scale;
Speed (r=.38), Stride length (r=.39)

Ijmker, T., & Lamoth, C. J.[47] Older adults (n=14), age; 76.9±4.1, 12M&2F, MMSE 28.5±1.16, TMT-B -2.5±.82, DS 19.8±5.54, CF 31.6±6.01, Stroop 35.3±10.79
Dementia (n=15), age; 81.7±6.3, 13M&2F, MMSE 19.6±3.58, TMT-B -3.6±1.47, DS 16.8±5.50, CF 14.3±6.43, Stroop 17.9±7.90
1. Walking with say a word that starts with "r", "g", and "p". OA
Speed .98±.10m/s,
STm 1.10±.05s,
STcv 4.26±1.00%
Dementia
Speed .51±.18m/s,
STm 1.19±.11s,
STcv 12.88±6.78%
Ambulant accelerometer (walk for three minutes at a self-selected pace up and down a 10m long course) Gait speed (m/s),
Mean stride time (s),
Coefficient of variation stride time (%)
Global cognition (MMSE, Letter fluency),
Memory (TMT-B, Category fluency),
Attention (TMT-B, Digit Span),
Executive function (Stroop)
Correlated
Dual task (walking with say a word);
↓Gait speed, ↑gait variability, ↓executive function, in dementia.
Gait speed;
MMSE (r=.710), Category fluency (r=.670), Letter fluency (r=.680) CV stride time;
MMSE (r=-.660), Category fluency (r=-.550), Letter fluency (r=-.480)

König, A. et al.[38] AD (n=23), age; 77±9, 12M&11F, MMSE 17±4.62, TMT-A 66.58±37.67, TMT-B 279.29±64.05, FAB 10.89±3.94
MCI (n=24), age; 75±9, 8M&16F, MMSE 24.75±3.18, TMT-A 56.4±19.1, TMT-B 171.73±94.78, FAB 15.1±1.74
1. Walking while counting backwards from 305 in steps of 1 AD
Gait speed (sec) 31.91 (SD=7.79)
MCI
Gait speed (sec) 30.95 (SD=10)
CE-marked accelerometer Walking speed (sec) Global cognition (MMSE, FAB),
Memory/
Attention (MMSE, TMT-A/B),
Visuospatial skill (FAB)
No correlated
Dual task (walking while counting backwards);
DT duration and attention;
MMSE subscale attention and calculation (r=−.190), TMT-B (r=.294).

Montero-Odasso, M. et al.[46] MCI (n=55), age; 77.7±5.89, 30M&25F, MMSE 26.8±2.1, MoCA 22.4±3.2, LNS 7.6±2.4, TMT-A 55.8±20.9, TMT-B 178.8±108.6 1. Walking with naming animals
2. Walking with counting backward (100 to 1)
Naming animals .65±.2m/s,
Counting backward (100 to 1) .63±.20m/s
8m walking test Gait speed (m/s) Global cognition (MMSE, MoCA),
Executive function (LNS),
Memory/
Attention (TMT-A/B)
Correlated
Dual task (walking with naming animals, wakling with counting backward);
↓Gait speed, ↓executive function, ↓memory;
slow counting GV (p=.038), slow verbal GV (p=.031).
No correlated
global cognitive level under dual-tasks.

Montero-Odasso, M. et al.[42] na-MCI (n=22), age; 74.18±6.54, 8M&14F, MMSE 29.14±.83, MoCA 25.67±2.03, TMT-A 43.31±14.97, TMT-B 107.70±39.72, DS-forward 11.41±2.04, DS-backward 7.95±2.10, LNS 8.55±2.32, RAVLT (/15) 7.95±2.17, RAVLT (/45) 18.95±4.18, BNT 13.89±1.10
a-MCI (n=42), age; 77.33±7.26, 26M&18F, MMSE 27.24.±2.07, MoCA 22.76±2.88, TMT-A 51.03±15.28, TMT-B 141.9±67.81, DS–forward 10.81±1.82, DS-backward 6.36±2.13, LNS 7.24±2.85, RAVLT (/15) 2.93±1.83, RAVLT (/45) 14.05±4.06, BNT 13.20±1.57
1. Walking with counting backwards from 100 by ones
2. Walking with subtracting serial 7 from 100
3. Walking with naming animals
na-MCI
Counting;
Velocity 105.16±21.75cm/s,
STcv 2.90±.98%
Subtracting;
Velocity 93.69±26.32cm/s,
STcv 4.83±3.53%
Naming animals;
Velocity 95.93±25.63cm/s,
STcv 3.82±2.10%
a-MCI
Counting;
Velocity 90.32±25.63cm/s,
STcv 4.81±3.73%
Subtracting;
Velocity 77.90±29.03cm/s,
STcv 6.47±5.71%
Naming animals;
Velocity 79.27±27.323cm/s,
STcv 5.63±5.00%
GAITRite (600cm) Velocity (cm/s),
Stride time variability (CV, %)
Global cognition (MMSE, MoCA),
Attention (TMT-A/B, DS–forward/backward, LNS),
Memory (TMT-A/B, RAVLT),
Executive function (LNS),
Processing speed (LNS),
Language (BNT)
Correlated
Dual task (walking with counting backwards, walking with subtracting, waking with naming animals);
In a-MCI,↓Gait speed, ↓memory (RAVLT, p<.010), ↓executive function (TMT-B, p=.030).
In na-MCI, normal memory, ↓executive function, ↓attention.
Velocity;
Counting gait (p=.030),
Naming animal gait (p=.030),
Serial sevens gait (p=.050)
Stride time variability;
Counting gait (p=.010),
Naming animal gait (p=.080),
Serial sevens gait (p=.270)

Sheridan, P. L. et al.[43] AD (n=28), age; 77.9±6.9, MMSE 13.8±7.9, CLOX I 3.5±4.5, CLOX II 5.5±5.3, Verbal fluency 3.5±3.2, DS 5.3±1.9 1. Walking while performing forward digit span Gait speed:.09±.18m/sec,
Stride-to-stride SD of the stride time 170±99msec,
Stride-to-stride CV: 35.8±56.4%
Foot switch (50 feet, m/s) Stride variability (CV, %, m/s),
Gait speed (m/sec)
Global cognition (MMSE),
Executive function (CLOX I/II, Verbal fluency),
Attention/
Memory (DS)
Correlated
Dual task (walking while performing forward digit span);
↑Gait variability, ↓memory, ↓executive function, ↓global cognition, ↓attention.
MMSE and Stride variability (r=.470, p=.011)
CLOX I and Stride variability (r=.460, p=.015)
CLOX II and Stride variability (r=.490, p=.008)
Verbal Fluency and Stride variability (r=.530, p=.004)
No correlated
Dual task (walking while performing forward digit span);
Gait speed and memory, executive function, global cognition, attention.

Venema, D. M. et al.[40] MCI (n=23), age; 80.2±8.0, 7M&16F, MMSE 22.7±6.6 1. SSWS while counting forward by 1’s (SSWS1)
2. SSWS while counting backward by 3’s (SSWS3)
3. TUG while counting forward by 1’s (TUG1)
4. TUG while counting backward by 3’s (TUG3)
TUG (3m),
SSWS (6m)
Pace (m/s) Global cognition (MMSE) Correlated
SSWS3, TUG1, TUG3 with MMSE and DTC (r=.430-.570).
Low correlated
SSWS1 had a weaker with
MMSE and DTC (r=.360),
SSWS1 (r=.360, p=.090),
SSWS3 (r=.430, p=.040),
TUG1 (r=.570, p=.010),
TUG3 (r=.440, p=.040).

Abbreviations as follows; AD (Alzheimer Disease), a-MCI (amnestic MCI), BNT (Boston naming test), CF (Category Fluency), CLOX (Clock drawing task), CV (Coefficient of variation), DS (Digit Span), DT (Dual-task), DTC (Dual-task cost), DTW (Dual-Task Walking), FAB (Frontal Assessment Battery), GV (Gait Velocity), LNS (Letter Number Sequencing), MCI (Mild Cognitive Impairment), MMSE (Mini-Mental Status Examination), MoCA (Montreal Cognitive Assessment), na-MCI (non-amnestic MCI), OA (Old Adult), RAVLT (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test), SD (Standard deviation), SDST (Symbol Digit Substitution Task), SSWS (Self-Selected Walking Speed), STcv (coefficient of variation stride time), STm (mean stride time), TD (Dual task), TMT (Trail Making Test), TS (Single task), TUG (Timed Up and Go), ΔTMT=Part B–Part A

J Korean Soc Phys Med 2022;17:93-108 https://doi.org/10.13066/kspm.2022.17.1.93
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