Journal of The Korean Society of Physical Medicine

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Table. 3.

Table. 3.

Comparison of the Secondary Outcomes According to the Within-group and Between-group (Mean ± SD)

Measure Within-group Between-group

Experimental Group (n = 16) Control Group (n = 16)


Pretest Posttest MD p (d) Pretest Posttest MD p (d) t p(d)
CVA 49.43 ± 2.64 53.12 ± 1.82 3.68 ± 2.99 .000*(1.2) 50.34 ± 1.74 50.75 ± 2.61 .41 ± 2.13 .450 3.47 .002*(1.3)
Flexion 4.19 ± 2.27 1.73 ±1.45 -2.45 ± 1.78 .000*(1.4) 4.63 ± 1.91 2.31 ± 2.11 -2.31 ± 2.24 .000*(1.0) -.20 .845
Extension 19.09 ± 1.38 19.41 ± 1.17 .31 ± .97 .216 18.17 ± 1.67 18.47 ± 1.75 .30 ± 1.92 .546 -.02 .986
Left lateral flexion 17.06 ± 1.61 15.44 ± 1.23 -1.63 ± 2.15 .008*(.8) 16.41 ± 2.33 13.38 ± 2.19 -3.03 ± 1.60 .000*(1.9) 2.10 .044*(.7)
Right lateral flexion 17.33 ± 1.23 15.66 ± 1.74 -1.67 ± 1.89 .000*(.9) 15.38 ± 1.72 12.84 ± 1.76 -2.53 ± 2.03 .000*(1.2) 1.24 .225
Left rotation 15.25 ± 2.17 13.88 ± 1.58 -1.38 ± 2.35 .033*(.6) 14.13 ± 2.22 11.63 ± 2.28 -2.50 ± 2.76 .000*(.9) 1.24 .224
Right rotation 15.41 ± 1.57 13.94 ± 1.38 -1.47 ± 1.92 .008*(.8) 14.50 ± 1.80 10.53 ± 6.35 -3.97 ± 6.67 .000*(.6) 1.18 .249

*p < .05, d: effect size d

CVA: Craniovertebral Angle, MD: Mean Differences

J Korean Soc Phys Med 2022;17:29-40 https://doi.org/10.13066/kspm.2022.17.2.29
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