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Effects of Changes in the Indoor and Outdoor Environmental on the Walking Speed and Lower Extremity Muscle Activities in People Aged Forty and Older than Seventy Years
J korean soc phys med 2018;13(4):139-148
Published online November 30, 2018;
© 2018 Korean Society of Physical Medicine.

Jun-Young Lee, MEd, PT⋅Tack-Hoon Kim, PhD, PT1†

Department of Special Education, Graduate School, Dankook University
1Department of Physical Therapy, Division of Health Science, Hanseo University
Received October 4, 2018; Revised October 9, 2018; Accepted November 9, 2018.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
PURPOSE: This study compared the effects of indoor and outdoor environmental changes on the activity of the major lower limb muscles and walking factors in people 40-50 years and those aged older than 70 years.
METHODS: Ten middle-aged people in their forties (age:44.2±2.7, BMI:21.8±1.8) and 10 elderly aged more than 70 years (age:76.4±5.9, BMI:22.2±1.9) with a normal walking ability were included. The participants walked 100m both indoors and outdoors at their own speed. Using a 3D motion analyzer and EMG, the walking speed, angle of the ankle and activity changes of the lower limb muscles were compared.
RESULTS: Significant differences in walking speed and peak-plantar flexion angle were observed between the two groups (p<.05). The muscular activity of the gastrocnemius muscle (GCM) was significantly different outdoors in the swing phase between the two groups (p<.05). In the people aged in their forties, the muscular activity of the rectus femoris (RF) was significantly higher outdoors than indoors (p<.05). In the elderly, however, the muscular activity of the RF was lower outdoors than indoors (p<.05). When compared to those in there forties, the muscular activity of the outdoor RF significantly decreased in the elderly group (P<.05). The muscular activity of the biceps femoris (BF) in the elderly decreased significantly outdoors compared to indoors (p<.05).
CONCLUSION: For the elderly, increasing the exposure to the new environments or focusing on the performance of repeated movements for gradual speed control and precise movements is required to maintain normal gaits and movements that are less affected by environmental changes.
Keywords : Electromyography, Enviroment, Gait, Walking speed

November 2018, 13 (4)
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