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Comparison of Muscle Activation on Cervical and Lumbar Erector Spinae, and Upper Trapezius according to Sitting Postures while using a Smartphone in a Bathroom
J Korean Soc Phys Med 2019;14(2):71-77
Published online May 31, 2019;  https://doi.org/10.13066/kspm.2019.14.2.71
© 2019 Journal of The Korean Society of Physical Medicine.

Joon-Ho Seo · Mi-Young Lee, PT, PhD1 · Hyeok-Gyu Kwon, PT, PhD2†

Department of Medical Science, Graduate School, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan, Republic of Korea,
1Department of Physical Therapy, College of Biomedical Science, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan, Republic of Korea,
2Department of Physical Therapy, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi, Republic of Korea
Received November 21, 2018; Revised November 29, 2018; Accepted February 21, 2019.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the level of muscle activation on the cervical erector spinae (CES), lumbar erector spinae (LES), and upper trapezius (UT) according to the sitting postures while using a smartphone in the bathroom.
Method: Thirty-two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. The CES, LES, and UT were evaluated by surface electromyography according to two sitting postures while using a smartphone on the toilet seat. A paired t test was performed for the root mean square of reference voluntary contraction (%RVC) comparisons between two sitting postures, and one-way ANOVA was used to compare the three muscle activations within each posture.
Results: A comparison between the two sitting postures revealed the muscle activation of both CESs in sitting posture 2 and both LESs in sitting posture 1 to be significantly higher than those of the others. In sitting posture 1, the muscle activation of both LESs was significantly higher than those of the CES and UT. In sitting posture 2, the muscle activation of both CESs was significantly higher than those of the LES and UT.
Conclusion: High muscle activation of the CES and LES was observed according to the sitting postures when using smartphone in the restroom. Therefore, long time use of smartphones on a toilet seat should be avoided.
Keywords : EMG, Muscle activation, Restroom, Sitting position, Smartphone


May 2019, 14 (2)
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